From The Condemnation of Blackness, by Khalil G Muhammad, pp. 187-8:
The [League of Civic and Political Reform (LCPR)] planned to alter the course of crime prevention among blacks nationwide, using the church as a source for recruitment and a sphere of influence. … [James] Stemons, [Charles Albert] Tindley, and their influential supporters used the rhetoric of criminality to build a black army against it. Although they could draw rhetorical and practical examples from the anticrime work of settlement houses, institutional churches, the Association for the Protection of Colored Women, and the Women’s Movement of the National Baptist Convention, there was no exact precedent for what they were attempting to do. They were not only engaging directly in crime prevention, but they were demanding better policing and by extension better accountability of municipal services as well. They were indirectly attacking the political support for mostly white-owned vice industries, such as speakeasies, brothels, and gambling dens. Most importantly, they were explicitly linking these battles to a broader war for economic and racial justice in the North.
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